孙以出之网

您现在的位置: 首页 > 石窟庵 > 正文内容

新概念英语第四册学习手册【Lesson16、17、18】_新概念英语

来源:孙以出之网   时间: 2018-05-30

【导语】为了方便同学们的学习,无忧考网为大家整理了新概念英语第四册学习手册,新概念英语作为一套世界闻名的英语教程,以其全新的教学理念,有趣的课文内容和全面的技能训练,深受广大英语学习者的欢迎和喜爱。希望以下内容能够为大家的新概念英语学习提供帮助!

Lesson 16

The modern city

现代城市

What is the author's main argument about the modern city?

In the organization of industrial life the influence of the factory upon the physiological and mental state of the workers has been completely neglected. Modern industry is based on the conception of the maximum production at lowest cost, in order that an individual or a group of individuals may earn as much money as possible. It has expanded without any idea of the true nature of the human beings who run the machines, and without giving any consideration to the effects produced on the individuals and on their descendants by the artificial mode of existence imposed by the factory. The great cities have been built with no regard for us. The shape and dimensions of the skyscrapers depend entirely on the necessity of obtaining the maximum income per square foot of ground, and of offering to the tenants offices and apartments that please them. This caused the construction of gigantic buildings where too large masses of human beings are crowded together. Civilized men like such a way of living. While they enjoy the comfort and banal luxury of their dwelling, they do not realize that they are deprived of the necessities of life. The modern city consists of monstrous edifices and of dark, narrow streets full of petrol fumes and toxic gases, torn by the noise of the taxicabs, lorries and buses, and thronged ceaselessly by great crowds. Obviously, it has not been planned for the good of its inhabitants.

ALEXIS CARREL Man, the Unknown

New words and expressions 生词和短语

physiological

adj. 生理的

maximum

adj. 最大限度的

consideration

n. 考虑

descendant

n. 子孙,后代

artificial

n. 人工的

impose

v. 强加

dimension

n. 直径

skyscraper

n. 摩天大楼

tenant

n. 租户

civilized

癫痫疾病的大小发作em">adj. 文明的

banal

adj. 平庸

luxury

n. 豪华

deprive

v. 剥夺

monstrous

adj. 畸形的

edifice

n. 大厦

toxic

adj. 有毒的

ceaselessly

adv. 不停地

throng

v. 挤满,壅塞

参考译文

在工业生活的组织中,工厂对工人的生理和精神状态的影响完全被忽视了。现代工业的基本概念是:以最低成本获取最多产品,为的是让某个个人或某一部分人尽可能多地赚钱。现代工业发展起来了,却根本没想到操作机器的人的本质。工厂把一种人为的生存方式强加给工人,却不顾及这种生存方式给工人及其后代带来的影响。大城市的建设毫不关心我们。摩天大楼完全是按这样的需要修建的:每平方英尺地皮取得最大收入和向租房人提供使他满意的办公室和住房。这样就导致了许多摩天大厦拔地而起,大厦内众多的人挤地一起。文明人喜欢这样一种生活方式。在享受自己住宅的舒适和庸俗的豪华时,却没有意识到被剥夺了生活所必需的东西。大得吓人的高楼和阴暗狭窄的街道组成了今日现代化的城市。街道上充斥着汽油味和有毒气体,出租汽车、卡车、公共汽车的噪音刺耳难忍,络绎不绝的人群挤来挤去。显然,现代化的城市不是这居民的利益而规划的。

Lesson 17

A man-made disease

人为的疾病

What factor helped to spread the disease of myxomatosis?

In the early days of the settlement of Australia, enterprising settlers unwisely introduced the European rabbit. This rabbit had no natural enemies in the Antipodes, so that it multiplied with that promiscuous abandon characteristic of rabbits. It overran a whole continent. It caused devastation by burrowing and by devouring the herbage which might have maintained millions of sheep and cattle. Scientists discovered that this particular variety of rabbit (and apparently no other animal) was susceptible to a fatal virus disease, myxomatosis. By infecting animals and letting them loose in the burrows, local epidemics of this disease could be created. Later it was found that there was a type of mosquito which acted as the carrier of this disease and passed it on to the rabbits. So while the rest of the world was trying to get rid of mosquitoes, Australia was encouraging this one. It effectively spread the disease all over the continent and drastically reduced the rabbit population. It later became apparent that rabbits were developing a degree of resistance to this disease, so that the rabbit population was unlikely to be completely exterminated. There were hopes, however, that the problem of the rabbit would become manageable.

Ironically, Europe, which had bequeathed the rabbit as a pest to Australia, acquired this 贺州癫痫频繁发作如何治疗man-made disease as a pestilence. A French physician decided to get rid of the wild rabbits on his own estate and introduced myxomatosis. It did not, however, remain within the confines of his estate. It spread through France, Where wild rabbits are not generally regarded as a pest but as sport and a useful food supply, and it spread to Britain where wild rabbits are regarded as a pest but where domesticated rabbits, equally susceptible to the disease, are the basis of a profitable fur industry. The question became one of whether Man could control the disease he had invented.

RITCHIE CALDER Science Makes Sense

New words and expressions 生词和短语

settlement

n. 新拓居地

enterprising

adj. 有事业心的

settler

n. 移居者

Antipodes

n. 新西兰和澳大利亚(英)

promiscuous

adj. 杂乱的

abandon

n. 放任,纵情

overrun

v. 蔓延,泛滥

devastation

n. 破坏,劫掠

burrow

v. 挖、掘

susceptible

adj. 易受感染的

virus

n. 病毒

myxomatosis

n. 多发性粘液瘤

infect

v. 传染

epidemic

n. 流行病

mosquito

n. 蚊虫

carrier

n. 带菌者

exterminate

v. 消灭

ironically

adv. 具有讽刺意味地

bequeath

v. 把...传给

pest

n. 害虫,有害动物

pestilence

n. 瘟疫

confine

n. 范围

domesticate

v. 驯养

参考译文

在澳大利亚移民初期,一些有创业精神的移民不明智地把欧洲兔子引进了澳大利亚。这种鄂州治疗癫痫病比较好的医院兔子在澳大利亚及新西兰没有天敌,因此便以兔子所特有的杂乱交配迅猛繁殖起来。整个澳洲兔子成灾。它们在地下打洞,吃掉本可以饲养数百万头牛羊的牧草,给澳洲大陆造成了毁灭性的破坏。科学家们发现,这种特殊品种的兔子(显然不包括别的动物)易患一种叫“多发性粘液瘤”的致命毒性疾病。通过让染上此病的动物在洞内乱跑,就可以使这种疾病在一个地区蔓延起来。后来又发现,有一种蚊子是传播这种疾病的媒介,能把此病传染给兔子。因此,世界上其他地方在设法消灭蚊子的时候,澳大利亚却在促使这种蚊子大量繁殖。蚊子把这种疾病扩散到整个澳洲大陆,效果甚佳,结果兔子的数目在为减少。后来,明显看出,兔子对这种疾病已产生了一定程度的免疫力,所以兔子不可能被完全消灭。但是,已有希望解决兔子所带来的问题。


具有讽刺意味的是,欧洲把这种兔子作为有害动物传给澳洲,而欧洲自己却染上了这种人为的瘟疫般的疾病。一位法国内科医生决定除掉自己庄园内的野兔子,于是引进了这种多发性粘液瘤疾病。然而,这种疾病并未被局限在他的庄园内,结果在整个法国蔓延开来。野兔在法国一般不被当作有害动物,而被视为打猎取乐的玩物和有用的食物来源。这种疾病又蔓延到了英国。在英国,野兔被当作有害的动物,可是家兔是赚钱的毛皮工业的基础,然而家兔同样易感染这种疾病。现在的问题是,人类能否控制住这种人为的疾病。

Lesson 18

Porpoises

海豚

What would you say is the main characteristic of porpoises?

There has long been a superstition among mariners that porpoises will save drowning men by pushing them to the surface, or protect them from sharks by surrounding them in defensive formation. Marine Studio biologists have pointed out that, however intelligent they may be, it is probably a mistake to credit dolphins with any motive of lifesaving. On the occasions when they have pushed to shore an unconscious human being they have much more likely done it out of curiosity or for sport, as in riding the bow waves of a ship. In 1928 some porpoises were photographer working like beavers to push ashore a waterlogged mattress. If, as has been reported, they have protected humans from sharks, it may have been because curiosity attracted them and because the scent of a possible meal attracted the sharks. Porpoises and sharks are natural enemies. It is possible that upon such an occasion a battle ensued, with the sharks being driven away or killed.

Whether it be bird, fish or beast, the porpoise is intrigued with anything that is alive. They are constantly after the turtles, who peacefully submit to all sorts of indignities. One young calf especially enjoyed raising a turtle to the surface with his snout and then shoving him across the tank like an aquaplane. Almost any day a young porpoise may be seen trying to turn a 300-pound sea turtle over by sticking his snout under the edge of his shell and pushing up for dear life. This is not easy, and may require two porpoises working together. In another game, as the turtle swims across the oceanarium, the first porpoise swoops down from above and butts his shell with his belly. This knocks the turtle down several feet. He no sooner recovers his equilibrium than the next porpoise comes along and hits him another crack. Eventually the turtle has been butted all the way down to the floor of the tank. He is now satisfied merely to try to stand up, b轻微癫痫症状ut as soon as he does so a porpoise knocks him flat. The turtle at last gives up by pulling his feet under his shell and the game is over.

RALPH NADING HILL Window in the Sea

New words and expressions 生词和短语

porpoise

n. 海豚

mariner

n. 水手

shark

n. 鲨鱼

formation

n. 队形

dolphin

n. 海豚科动物

unconscious

adj. 不省人事

beaver

n. 海狸

ashore

adv. 上岸

waterlogged

adj. 浸满水的

scent

n. 香味

ensue

v. 接着发生

intrigue

v. 引起兴趣

indignity

n. 侮辱

snout

n. 口鼻部

shove

v. 硬推

aquaplane

n. 驾浪滑水板

oceanarium

n. 水族馆

swoop

v. 猛扑

belly

n. 腹部

equilibrium

n. 平衡

butt

v. 碰撞

crack

n. 重击

参考译文

长期以来,海员中流传着一种迷信的说法,认为海豚会把快要淹死的人托到水面,救人性命;或在人们周围列队保护,使他们免遭鲨鱼伤害。海洋摄影室的生物学家指出,无论海豚多么聪明,认为它们有救人的动机可能是错误的。当它们偶尔把一个失去知觉的人推到岸边时,更大的可能是出于好奇或游戏,就像它们追逐被船首犁开的浪花一样。1928年,有人拍摄到了海豚像海狸一样把浸透水的床垫推上岸的情景。正如报道中所说,如果海豚保护人不受鲨鱼侵害,那么它们可能是出于好奇;而鲨鱼可能是闻到了可以美食一顿的香味。海豚和鲨鱼是天然仇敌,双方可能随之发生搏斗,搏斗结果是海豚赶走或咬死鲨鱼。

海豚对凡是活的东西都感兴趣,不管是鸟、是鱼,还是野兽。它们经常追逐海龟,海龟则温顺地忍受着各种侮辱。一只小海豚特别喜欢用鼻子把海龟推到水面,然后像滑水板一样把海龟从水池的这一边推到那一边。几乎每天都可以看到一只小海豚把鼻子顶入一只300磅重的海龟的硬壳下面,拼命地把它翻过来。这并非易事,可能需要两只海豚合伙干才行。在另一场游戏中,当海龟游过水族馆时,第一只海豚从上方猛扑下去,用腹部撞击龟壳。这一下子把海龟撞下去好几英尺。海龟刚恢复平衡,第二只海豚又冲过来猛击一下。这只海龟最终被撞到池底。此时的海龟,只要能站起来就满足了,但它刚站起来,就被一只海豚击倒。海龟终于屈服了,将4条腿缩进壳内。游戏到此结束。

北京军海癫痫医院
推荐阅读
本类最新

© zw.kldwi.com  孙以出之网    版权所有  京ICP备12007688号